Erweiterte Neuauflage von “ Starke Regionen-Starkes Europa“ mit EU Förderungsprojekten

 

EU Förderungsexperte Dr. Johannes Ausserladscheiter, Breitbandexperte Joseph Miedl MBA und Historiker Martin Reiter bringen Neuauflage mitSchwerpunkt EU Förderungsprojekte auf den Markt.

Autoren: Dr. Johannes Ausserladscheiter, Joseph Miedl MBA, Martin Peter Reiter

Autoren: Dr. Johannes Ausserladscheiter, Joseph Miedl MBA, Martin Peter Reiter

 

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Wer in Europa am meisten forscht

Wer in Europa am meisten forscht

Nicht nur in staatlichen Einrichtungen und Hochschulen wird geforscht. In vielen EU-Ländern macht der Unternehmenssektor den größten Anteil an den Ausgaben aus. Doch es gibt auch Ausnahmen.

imageForschung findet in modernen Staaten sowohl von staatlicher Seite, in Hochschulen als auch in der freien Wirtschaft statt. Die Grafik von Statista zeigt, wie sich die Ausgaben im Jahr 2013 in einzelnen EU-Staaten und der Union insgesamt verteilt haben. Der Unternehmenssektor war in den meisten Mitgliedstaaten der wichtigste Sektor, außer in Griechenland, Zypern, Lettland und Litauen. Hier war der Hochschulsektor der bedeutendste. In Rumänien wurde etwa die Hälfte der FuE-Ausgaben im Staatssektor getätigt. Die Ausgabenverteilung in Deutschland ist nah am EU-Schnitt.

Asien setzt auf Kernkraft
China wird die führende Atommacht. Das zeigen Prognosen der OECD imageüber die zivile Nutzung der Kernkraft. Die Grafik von Statista zeigt die heute installierte Leistung der Kernkraftwerke in Gigawatt im Jahr 2013 und die Prognosen für das Jahr 2040. Derzeit haben die Kernkraftwerke in den Vereinigten Staaten und in der EU insgesamt noch eine deutlich höhere Nennleistung. Doch das wird sich in den kommenden Jahren ändern. Je nach Szenario – die OECD führt dazu drei verschiedene auf – wird in den westlichen Staaten die Leistung der Kernkraftwerke etwa gleich bleiben oder sogar zurückgehen. In China wächst sie jedoch in allen drei Szenarien. Im Jahr 2040 wird in sämtlichen Szenarien China mehr Atomstrom produzieren als die Vereinigten Staaten oder die EU.

Asien setzt auf Kernkraft
China wird die führende Atommacht. Das zeigen Prognosen der OECD über die zivile Nutzung der Kernkraft. Die Grafik von Statista zeigt die heute installierte Leistung der Kernkraftwerke in Gigawatt im Jahr 2013 und die Prognosen für das Jahr 2040. Derzeit haben die Kernkraftwerke in den Vereinigten Staaten und in der EU insgesamt noch eine deutlich höhere Nennleistung. Doch das wird sich in den kommenden Jahren ändern. Je nach Szenario – die OECD führt dazu drei verschiedene auf – wird in den westlichen Staaten die Leistung der Kernkraftwerke etwa gleich bleiben oder sogar zurückgehen. In China wächst sie jedoch in allen drei Szenarien. Im Jahr 2040 wird in sämtlichen Szenarien China mehr Atomstrom produzieren als die Vereinigten Staaten oder die EU.

China forscht
Die Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung in China steigen rasant. Die Grafik von Statista zeigt den Anteil an den weltweiten Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung. 2008 hat China den Dauerkonkurrenten Japan überholt, nun steht China kurz davor, auch die EU beim Anteil an den weltweiten Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung zu überholen. Die OECD prognostiziert, dass China sogar die Vereinigten Staaten innerhalb dieser Dekade überholen könnte.

Spionage Affäre Deutschland

Angeblich mehr als ein Dutzend Spione in deutschen Ministerien
Laut einem Bericht der „Bild am Sonntag“ soll der amerikanische Geheimdienst CIA mehr als ein Dutzend deutsche Regierungsmitarbeiter als Spione beschäftigen. Dabei seien vor allem vier Ministerien von besonderem Interesse.

Die Affäre um amerikanische Spione in Deutschland weitet sich anscheinend weiter aus. Nach Informationen der Zeitung „Bild am Sonntag“ führt der amerikanische Auslandsnachrichtendienst CIA mehr als ein Dutzend Regierungsmitarbeiter in Deutschland als Quellen. Das will die Zeitung aus Geheimdienstkreisen der Vereinigten Staaten erfahren haben.

Spionage in Deutschland

Spionage in Deutschland

Im Visier der CIA sind dabei die vier Ministerien Verteidigung, Wirtschaft, Innen und Entwicklungshilfe. Letzteres sei für die CIA von Interesse, weil über das Entwicklungshilfeministerium verdeckte Operationen des Bundesnachrichtendienst im Ausland liefen.

Schon viele Jahre als Spione tätig
Viele der Spione würden demnach schon mehrere Jahre für den Geheimdienst arbeiten. Aufgrund der aktuellen Debatte fänden derzeit aber keine Treffen zwischen den Spionen und der CIA in Deutschland statt. Stattdessen werde derzeit geprüft, ob die Vereinigten Staaten ihre Agentenführer in die Botschaften nach Warschau und Prag zu verlegen und von dort aus operieren zu lassen.

Erstmals sollen sich dem Bericht zufolge auch amerikanische Behörden gegenüber der Bundesregierung zu den Spionagevorwürfen gegen einen Mitarbeiter des Verteidigungsministeriums geäußert haben. Es bestehe keine nachrichtendienstliche Verbindung zu dem Mitarbeiter, hieß es.

imageSpionageabwehr in alle Richtungen
Außerdem forderte der Vorsitzende des Verteidigungsausschusses im Bundestag, Hans-Peter Bartels (SPD) eine Erweiterung der Tätigkeit der deutschen Nachrichtendienste: „Unsere Nachrichtendienste dürfen in keine Richtung blind sein. Sie müssen zur Spionageabwehr rundum fähig sein, also 360-Grad-Beobachtung. Es darf da keinen toten Winkel geben.“

Das sei offenbar allerdings bereits passiert. So habe die CIA registriert, dass mehrere Botschaftsmitarbeiter seit einigen Tagen von Spezialisten des Bundesamtes für Verfassungsschutz observiert werden, hieß es laut „Bild am Sonntag“.

World leaders gather in Brussels for G7

Leaders of the world’s seven richest nations are meeting in Brussels on Wednesday and Thursday at the G7 summit. The meeting was supposed to be a Group of Eight meeting and was to take place in Sochi in Russia, but other leaders decided on a boycott following the Russian intervention in Ukraine. The summit is expected to cause considerable traffic disruption in the Belgian and Flemish capital.

G7 Summit Brussels, Presented by European Court Experts

G7 Summit Brussels, Presented by European Court Experts

Foreign policy, the economy, trade and energy security are all on the agenda of the summiteers that include America’s President Obama. Given Europe’s dependency on Russian gas and oil the international community’s response to Russia’s actions in Ukraine should lead to some very interesting discussions.

After the G7 in Brussels the summiteers move on to Normandy for events to mark the D-Day landings by the Allies that took place exactly seventy years ago. Here meetings are planned with President Putin of Russia.

In addition to the G7 nations, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the US, the EU is also represented by Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso and Council President Herman Van Rompuy.

The summit starts with a dinner at which foreign policy issues including Ukraine will be discussed. Syria, Afghanistan, Mali, the Central African Republic and North Korea are also on the agenda. On Thursday the focus switches to the economy with discussions on the free trade deal between the US and the EU. International development is being discussed at the dinner on Thursday.

Climate Change

WASHINGTON — Tom Steyer, a billionaire environmental activist from California, wants to blast the issue of climate change to the front lines of American politics. His “super PAC,” NextGen Climate, will spend about $100 million this year to influence several Senate and governor’s races in which climate change could play a major role.

imageBut the goal, Mr. Steyer’s strategists say, is to pave the way for climate change to become a major issue in the next presidential campaign, by elevating it in the minds of voters in states that will play crucial roles in nominating and electing the next president.

Mr. Steyer’s organization will pour money into media campaigns to influence Senate races in Iowa, New Hampshire, Colorado and Michigan, and governors’ races in Pennsylvania, Florida and Maine. They will back candidates who openly embrace climate change policies in an effort to help them defeat those who question or deny the established science of climate change.

Mr. Steyer hopes those tactics will create a political landscape in which candidates fear that they will be politically punished for questioning that science. To coordinate the effort, Mr. Steyer has hired Chris Lehane, a veteran Democratic strategist.

“We want 2014 to be a pivot year for climate — the year we can demonstrate that you can use climate change as a wedge issue to win in political races,” Mr. Lehane said Wednesday at a briefing with reporters.

Mr. Lehane declined to name an exact figure, but he said that Mr. Steyer had already pledged to spend $50 million of his own fortune on the effort, while NextGen Climate has committed to raising $50 million more.

This year’s strategy expands on successful efforts by Mr. Steyer to elevate climate change issues in three 2013 races. He and NextGen spent over $11 million to influence the Virginia governor’s race, with the intent of defeating Kenneth T. Cuccinelli II, a Republican who questions the science of climate change.

Terry McAuliffe, the winning Democratic candidate, was not known as a major champion of climate policy, but he campaigned against Mr. Cuccinelli as out-of-touch and a turnoff for potential businesses seeking to invest in Virginia.

image“The race in 2013 in Virginia was a beta test for 2014,” Mr. Lehane said. “It provided us the political paradigm to model our other races off of.”

Climate policies have traditionally been a tough campaign issue for candidates. A mounting stack of scientific evidence has concluded that human activities — particularly burning coal and oil for electricity and transportation — are trapping heat in the atmosphere and leading to dangerous food and water shortages, increasing droughts and deluges, and potentially devastating sea-level rises. But Many American voters remain unconvinced that the science is real.

Since 2010, Republican campaigns have attacked Democrats who support climate policies to cut carbon pollution as backing a “war on coal” and “job-killing regulations.”

That kind of language is likely to escalate after June 2, when President Obama is expected to announce a climate change regulation intended to slash pollution from coal-fired power plants.

Charles and David Koch, billionaire industrialist brothers, have put millions of dollars into advocacy groups and super PACs like Americans for Prosperity, which have campaigned aggressively against lawmakers who support climate change policy.

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“The left knows that the global warming agenda is a loser for them with the American people,” Tim Phillips, president of Americans for Prosperity, said in an interview. Mr. Phillips said that none of the four most vulnerable Democratic senators — Mary L. Landrieu of Louisiana, Mark Begich of Alaska, Kay Hagan of North Carolina and Mark Pryor of Arkansas — had embraced climate change policy. All four support construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline, which Mr. Steyer opposes.

“Senators up for re-election have their sneakers on and are running from this,” Mr. Phillips said. “They know the issue doesn’t matter with most Americans.”

But one expert said Mr. Steyer’s tactic may work.

“Independent voters, with regard to the issue of climate change, track much more closely with Democrats than Republicans,” said Edward Maibach, the director of the Center for Climate Change Communication at George Mason University. “Painting candidates as climate deniers stands a good chance of working in districts where the vote turns on independents.”

Mr. Steyer’s group hopes to be helped by the National Climate Assessment, a new scientific report that details the ways climate change is already causing economic harm across the United States.

In the Senate race in Michigan, Mr. Steyer’s group will back Representative Gary Peters, a Democrat who says he will make a point of highlighting how climate change is lowering water levels and leading to environmental problems in the Great Lakes, while also threatening Michigan’s agriculture.

“It’s important to frame the issue in terms of potential threats to our state,” Mr. Peters said.

In Florida, NextGen will spend to defeat Gov. Rick Scott, who has openly questioned the science of climate change. Charlie Crist, a Democratic challenger and former Republican, has cited skepticism of climate change as one of the reasons he left the party.

Florida voters will play a crucial role in the 2016 election. The state is home to two possible Republican presidential contenders — Senator Marco Rubio, who has questioned the science of climate change, and former Gov. Jeb Bush, who has evaded specific questions on the issue.

imageIn Iowa, NextGen will back Representative Bruce Braley, a Democratic candidate for the Senate who voted for a House climate change bill in 2009. The group will attack Mr. Braley’s potential Republican opponents, State Senator Joni Earnst or Mark Jacobs, a former electric energy company executive, by criticizing claims they have made questioning climate science.

In Maine’s three-way governor’s race, Mr. Steyer’s group hopes to unseat the Republican incumbent, Paul R. LePage, who has said that climate change could bring economic opportunity to his state, as melting ice in the Northeast Passage opened up shipping routes, and warmer winters could attract tourists to Maine year-round.

In Colorado, the group will back Senator Mark Udall, a Democrat who has vocally supported climate and clean energy policies, against Representative Cory Gardner, who has questioned the science of climate change. In the Pennsylvania governor’s race, NextGen will back Tom Wolf, a Democrat, against the Republican incumbent, Tom Corbett, who in an interview this month called the science of climate change “a subject of debate.”

Obama and Merkel warn Russia of economic sanctions over Ukraine

US president Barack Obama and German chancellor Angela Merkel hold a joint news conference in the Rose Garden.

US president Barack Obama and German chancellor Angela Merkel hold a joint news conference in the Rose Garden.

US and German leaders present united front in warning Putin futher sanctions inevitable unless Russia reverses course

US president Barack Obama and German chancellor Angela Merkel on Friday warned Russia that sanctions targeting whole sections of the country’s economy would be inevitable unless Moscow de-escalates the situation in Ukraine before elections later this month.

Appearing together at the White House, Obama and Merkel insisted they were united in their determination to use broad, so-called “sectoral sanctions” against Russia unless it reverses course in Ukraine by the elections on May 25.

However, in remarks likely to reassure Berlin, which is particularly dependent upon Russian gas exports, Obama played down the suggestion those sanctions would include sweeping restrictions on Russia’s sale of energy to Europe.

“Energy flows from Russia to Europe, those continued even in the midst of the cold war – at the the height of the cold war,” Obama said. „The idea that you’re going to turn off the tap to all Russian oil and natural gas exports is, I think, unrealistic.“

President Putin, Russia

President Putin, Russia

Obama said there was „a remarkable unity between the United States and the European Union“ about how to use leverage against Russian president Vladimir Putin over his continued interference in Ukraine.

European countries disagree over what form additional sanctions against Russia should take. “We have to take those [differences] into account,” Obama added. “Not every country is going to be in exactly the same place.”

However, if Russia impedes Ukraine’s forthcoming elections, Obama said, “we will not have a choice but to move forward with additional, more severe sanctions.“

Merkel also gave a strong endorsement of potential new sanctions against Russia. “In Europe, we have taken a position that should further destabilisation happen, we will move to a third stage of sanctions. I would like to underline this is not necessarily what we want, but we are ready and prepared to go such a step,” she said, according to a White House translation.

“We will see to it that elections can take place,” she added.

Angela Merkel, Germany and US President Barack Obama

Angela Merkel, Germany and US President Barack Obama

The strength of Merkel’s remarks about sectoral sanctions, while satisfying Washington, may surprise other European leaders. Senior European officials have been playing down the prospects of such broad-brush sanctions, which could also hurt Europe’s economy, suggesting they would only be used as a last resort, in the event of a full-scale military incursion by Russia across the border.

Both leaders called for the immediate release of seven hostages who were working as monitors by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe when they were captured by pro-Russian forces in eastern Ukraine.

Merkel, who has spoken directly with Putin to try to secure the release of the hostages, four of whom are German, said their release was „a very crucial step, that needs to happen first“.

The chancellor’s appearance with Obama marked her first visit to Washington since disclosures by the whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed her phone calls had been recorded by the National Security Agency.

Germany has been pressing for months for a mutual “no spy” agreement with the US, without success. Instead, Germany and the US have agreed to an ongoing “cyber dialogue” over issues relating to the balance between intelligence and privacy.

The language falls well short of what Berlin wanted, and Merkel made clear that differences remain between the the two countries on the issue.

She said that, while there was some intelligence cooperation between the countries, there are still differences over “what sort of balance to strike over the intensity of surveillance” used to combat terrorism and the consequences for privacy and individual freedom.

Obama warns Putin that Moscow faces further action

imageUkrainian troops ride tanks on the way toward Slovyanks on Monday where pro-Russian activists are occupying buildings. Photograph: Kommersant Photo/Kommersant via Getty Images
Barack Obama has told his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin in a tense phone call that Moscow would face further costs for its actions in Ukraine and should use its influence to get separatists in the country to stand down.

Armed pro-Russian separatists seized more buildings in eastern Ukraine earlier in the day, expanding their control after the government failed to follow through on a threatened military crackdown.

In a call on Monday night that the White House said Moscow requested, the US president told Putin that those forces were threatening to undermine and destabilise the government in Kiev.

„The president emphasised that all irregular forces in the country need to lay down their arms, and he urged president Putin to use his influence with these armed, pro-Russian groups to convince them to depart the buildings they have seized,“ the White House said in a statement.

Obama said Russian troops needed to withdraw from Ukraine’s border to defuse tensions and made a point of praising Kiev for its „remarkable restraint“ and efforts to unify the country with elections, constitutional reform and proposals to decentralise power to local governments.

President Putin Russia,  US President Barack Obama

President Putin Russia, US President Barack Obama

„The president noted Russia’s growing political and economic isolation as a result of its actions in Ukraine and made clear that the costs Russia already has incurred will increase if those actions persist,“ the White House said.

„(He) said that while he continues to believe that a diplomatic solution is still possible, it cannot succeed in an environment of Russian military intimidation on Ukraine’s borders, armed provocation within Ukraine, and escalatory rhetoric by Kremlin officials.“

The Kremlin said Putin told Obama during the call that Russia was not interfering in Ukraine and urged Washington to use its influence to prevent bloodshed.

Earlier, US officials stopped short of announcing a new set of sanctions against Russia but said they were in consultations with European partners about the prospect.

The European Union agreed on Monday to step up sanctions against Moscow by expanding a list of people subjected to asset freezes and visa bans.

A senior administration official described the call between Obama and Putin as „frank and direct,“ a diplomatic construction that usually means tense.

The next round of US sanctions, which would be the fourth imposed since the Ukraine crisis began, is likely to target Russians close to Putin as well as Russian entities, three sources familiar with the discussions said on Sunday.

US state department spokeswoman Jen Psaki noted that the United States was prepared to impose sanctions on individuals and entities in the financial services, energy, metals, mining, engineering and defence sectors.

The sanctions have been the most visible sign of U.S. anger at Russia’s annexation of the Crimea region in southern Ukraine last month, reflecting the deepest plunge in U.S.-Russian relations since the Cold War.
U.S. officials declined to identify a timeline on Monday for further sanctions.

image„I can assure you that Russia’s provocations – further transgressions and provocations will come with a cost. And I’m not here to specify what cost will come from which specific action, but there have already been costs imposed on Russia; there will be further costs imposed on Russia,“ White House spokesman Jay Carney told reporters.

Obama spoke to French president Francois Hollande about the crisis on Monday and, as he did later with Putin, praised Ukraine’s government for showing restraint, a sign Washington hopes Kiev will hold that course.

Carney also confirmed that the director of the CIA John Brennan, had been in Kiev over the weekend and decried what he called „false claims“ leveled at the CIA by Russian authorities.

„U.S. and Russian intelligence officials have met over the years. To imply that U.S. officials meeting with their counterparts (in Kiev) is anything other than in the same spirit is absurd,“ he said.

According to media reports, Russia had urged Washington to explain what Brennan was doing in Ukraine.

Peter Kendall is the new President of the World Farmers’ Organisation (WFO)

imagePeter Kendall of the National Farmers’ Union UK was elected as the new President of the World Farmers’ Organisation. After the US national Robert Carlson, he will be at the guide of the WFO for the next two years with a board of six members from six different continents: Mr. Ismail Ab Rahman Bin (Asia), Dr Evelyn Nguleka (Africa), Mr. Brent Finlay, (Oceania), Mr Luis Miguel Etchevehere (Latin America), Mr Piet Vanthemsche (Europe), Mr Ron Bonnet (North America). Dr Evelyn Nguleka has been nominated as Vice President of the WFO.

Peter Kendall, Former President of the National Farmers’ Union in England and Wales, took a degree in Agricultural Economics at Nottingham University, before returning to the family business in 1984. He was NFU President for eight years from 2006 to February 2014.

European Court Experts presents News from the World Farmers Organisation

European Court Experts presents News from the World Farmers Organisation

„Feeding the world’s rapidly growing population is one of the biggest challenges facing the world today , and it is vital that the world farmers have a strong and united voice as we seek the best solutions to meeting this demand” – said WFO president Peter Kendall –. “As President of the World Farmers Organisation (WFO) I look forward to continuing the excellent work of Robert Carlson and inclusive who has led the organization since its formation three years ago in August in that time has agriculture continued to climb the political agenda around the world and with the realization that increasing climate change and extreme weather events make our futures uncertain, the WFO has a vital and central role to play. My priority will be to continue to raise the profile of the WFO so it is seen as the lead and most respected organization for global agriculture. To be elected at this critical time is both a great honor and responsibility . “

The vote for the new president and the board has involved all the confederations member of the World Farmers’ Organisation during the General Assembly in Buenos Aires. The event that is going to end brought together about 100 agricultural confederations, coming from 80 different countries in Buenos Aires at the Sociedad Rural Argentina (SRA) from March 26 to 29.

World Economic Forum: Realising the potential of Latin America

European Court Experts presents News from the European Economic Forum

European Court Experts presents News from the World Economic Forum

In the run-up to the World Economic Forum on Latin America 2014, President Ricardo Martinelli outlines Panama’s progress and invites you to participate in the discussions that will help to shape its future

It has been a privileged experience to lead this country and help chart its path of economic and social transformation over the course of the past five years. Based on a clear vision of the imperative of development and through an aggressive $20 billion investment plan focused on the areas where the country has its greatest potential, Panama has become the country with the highest economic growth in the region and presently rivals that of any other country in the world. Despite a troubled international economic environment, the rate of growth of its GDP has reached double digits for 2011 and 2012.

We can also now proudly say that Panama’s economy has become the second most competitive in Latin America, after that of Chile. We have, from the beginning, clearly appreciated that this progress must be based upon a joint effort between the local public and private sectors – securely grounded in free-market principles combined with a strong sense of social responsibility.

imageIn addition, Panama has come to stand out as one of the best places to establish business operations for multinational companies. Foreign direct investment has tripled – to $4.6 billion since 2009 – and the investment grade rating of its bonds has been maintained. As a result, Panama has achieved truly global commercial projection and is now one of the most outstanding centres of banking and other financial services in the world. And the number of tourists visiting our beautiful country is now more than 2.2 million annually.

What gives this impressive growth real meaning, however, is that it has come hand in hand with social progress. The past five years of strong economic performance has reduced the unemployment rate from 6.6% to 4.1%, inflation has been controlled, and the number of people afflicted by poverty has steadily fallen. Robust infrastructure investments in healthcare, public transportation and education have resulted in billions of dollars for new hospitals, a vastly improved and expanded transportation system, schools and other social services. Central America’s first subway system will be inaugurated in Panama City next month. Also, we are expecting that once its expansion is completed, Panama and Tocumen International Airport, which we call the “Hub of the Americas”, will become Latin America´s foremost point of connectivity.

For me, it is an honour to host the 2014 World Economic Forum on Latin America in Panama City. The Forum is a particularly prestigious organization that brings together the most important figures from government, the business community, academia and other key elements of civil society.

European Court Experts, International Relations

European Court Experts, International Relations

Panama has a wonderful story of accomplishment to tell. But even more importantly, the country now possesses the energy, dynamism and confidence to continue its trajectory in the coming years and decades – thereby contributing significantly to a hopeful regional future. The forthcoming event presents a unique opportunity for Latin America to double its efforts to achieve the bright future its peoples deserve. And we are confident that its deliberations will greatly contribute to that common objective.

Under the theme of Opening Pathways for Shared Progress, we invite you to accompany us in offering perspectives on, and thoroughly discussing, the opportunities and challenges outlined in the agenda: Driving Economic Dynamism, Innovation for Social Inclusion, and the Modernizing of Infrastructure. We Panamanians will make certain that our greatest infrastructure project – the Panama Canal and its ongoing expansion – figures prominently within that agenda, especially since this year we celebrate its 100th anniversary.

I deeply believe in the unique beauty, opportunities and potential of Panama – and Latin America as a whole. And I am most pleased to invite you all to become active participants in deliberations that will, hopefully, serve to guide the next stage of our region’s development.

European Court of Human Rights: Discours prononcé par S.A.R. le Grand-Duc lors de la Session Solennelle de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme

Discours de Son Altesse Royale le Grand-Duc prononcé à l’occasion de la Session Solennelle de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme, le 27 mars 2014
Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Ministre, Mesdames et Messieurs les Juges, Excellences, Mesdames et Messieurs,
C’est avec beaucoup de gratitude que la Grande-Duchesse et moi-même avons accueilli vos paroles de bienvenue et votre initiative de nous inviter dans cette prestigieuse salle d’audience, où sont rendus la plupart des grands arrêts sur les droits de l’homme.

European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights

Notre rencontre d’aujourd’hui aurait dû avoir lieu plus tôt, il y a quelques mois. Le décès de M. Nelson Mandela l’a empêchée. J’ai regretté ce rendez-vous manqué, mais comme je me retrouve devant une haute assemblée composée de juges bienveillants, j’espère que vous nous accorderez des circonstances atténuantes pour notre désistement inopiné.
Je crois que l’hommage à Nelson Mandela auquel j’ai choisi de participer avec tant de chefs d’État le 10 décembre dernier ne pouvait vous laisser insensible, tant cette personnalité incarnait ce qui est au cœur de votre action quotidienne, c’est-à-dire la lutte pour la dignité humaine et des droits égaux entre les hommes. Cette qualité déjà insigne de M. Mandela fut encore dépassée par des valeurs morales exceptionnelles, comme la force du pardon et de la réconciliation. Quand le combat pour le droit s’allie à de telles vertus, le respect s’impose à tous. Pour dire un dernier mot du Président Mandela, je vous citerai une phrase tirée de son autobiographie que je trouve très belle: „Personne ne naît en haïssant une autre personne à cause de la couleur de sa peau, ou de son passé, ou de sa religion. Les gens doivent apprendre à haïr, et s’ils peuvent apprendre à haïr, on peut leur enseigner aussi à aimer, car l’amour naît plus naturellement dans le cœur de l’homme que son contraire“.
Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Ministre,
Mesdames et Messieurs les Juges, Excellences,
Mesdames et Messieurs,
Le privilège qui m’est donné de m’exprimer dans cette enceinte est un motif de fierté pour les Luxembourgeois dans leur ensemble. Je voudrais naturellement rendre hommage à mon compatriote M. Dean Spielmann, qui préside cette Cour avec autorité et compétence depuis novembre 2012.
imageVotre parcours, Monsieur le Président, comme avocat spécialiste des droits de l’homme, puis votre action comme juge ici-même, vous ont valu une reconnaissance des plus enviables. L’élection par vos pairs en est la plus belle consécration.
Permettez-moi de profiter de l’occasion pour saluer également une autre compatriote en la personne de Mme Anne Brasseur, qui préside aux destinées de l’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe depuis quelques semaines. Soyez rassurés, Mesdames et Messieurs, que cette situation rare, où un État membre de dimension modeste cumule de telles responsabilités au sein d’une organisation internationale de première importance n’est pas le résultat d’une volonté hégémonique du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg sur les institutions du Conseil de l’Europe.
Cette situation est bien le fruit de circonstances. Mais elle est aussi le reflet d’une appétence de mon pays pour les valeurs qui fondent la coopération au sein du Conseil de l’Europe depuis ses débuts, notamment le respect des droits de l’homme, le renforcement de la démocratie et la prééminence du droit.
Les épreuves traversées par un petit État coincé entre deux grandes puissances européennes, pire, les menaces directes pour sa survie pendant des décennies l’ont imprégné d’une sensibilité particulière à tout ce qui touche au respect du droit, qu’il concerne les États ou bien les personnes privées.
Il était naturel dès lors que le Luxembourg, un des membres fondateurs du Conseil de l’Europe, fût un allié de premier ordre de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme dès sa naissance. Symboliquement c’est le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg qui a été le 10ème État à déposer auprès du Conseil de l’Europe l’instrument de ratification de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, permettant ainsi son entrée en vigueur. J’aime à rappeler que c’est ma grand-mère, la Grande-Duchesse Charlotte, qui a posé sa signature sous la loi d’approbation. Ce faisant, était exprimé l’engagement du Luxembourg pour une union des Européens „par le développement des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales“.
Mesdames et Messieurs,
imageSur les relations étroites et intimes entre la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et le Luxembourg, il y aurait tant à dire. Je me bornerai cependant à citer quelques exemples qui soulignent cette proximité. „Mir gin elo op Strossbuerg fir Recht ze kreien …“ „Nous allons maintenant à Strasbourg pour obtenir justice“ est devenue une locution si commune dans mon pays qu’elle est comprise par tous, bien au-delà des cercles initiés de la justice. Parce qu’elle sait parler d’elle-même lorsqu’elle l’estime nécessaire, la presse luxembourgeoise a donné beaucoup de relief aux recours dont elle était partie prenante, il y a une dizaine d’années.
Cette médiatisation des affaires aidant, le rôle de la Cour de Strasbourg a été maintes fois explicité à mes concitoyens. Ses arrêts ont conduit le législateur à moderniser le droit de la presse qui datait du XIXème siècle.

Même si leurs connaissances sur les modalités de saisine peuvent beaucoup varier, il demeure remarquable que les Luxembourgeois aient parfaitement conscience de ce droit de recours individuel qu’ils partagent avec 800 millions de ressortissants de 47 États membres, lorsqu’ils estiment que leurs droits sont enfreints.
L’autre exemple que je voudrais mettre en avant tient aux effets des arrêts de la Cour sur la législation ou sur les pratiques administratives et judiciaires nationales. Les rares fois où le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg a été condamné pour violation des dispositions de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, le gouvernement s’est empressé de répondre avec diligence aux griefs qui lui étaient adressés et surtout d’y trouver une réponse adéquate. Parfois ces réponses sont de portée fondamentale et initient des bouleversements institutionnels, comme lors de l’arrêt Procola en 1995.
J’ai des souvenirs très précis de cette période, où moi-même étant jeune membre du Conseil d’État, la séparation de ses fonctions consultatives et juridictionnelles s’imposa comme une nécessité. La refondation d’un ordre administratif séparé a constitué une des réformes institutionnelles les plus abouties au cours des dernières décennies. Chacun se félicite aujourd’hui de cette réforme de fond bien plus respectueuse de la séparation des pouvoirs.
Une autre innovation d’importance dans le cadre plus large de la protection des droits a trait à la mise en place en 2000 d’une Commission consultative des droits de l’homme, sur le modèle de la commission française créée par René Cassin. Cette commission examine, dans une sorte de contrôle ex-ante, les procédures mises en place afin de réaliser une protection effective des droits fondamentaux dans l’ordre juridique luxembourgeois. Il est important à nos yeux que chaque État membre se dote des institutions adéquates pour prévenir les violations de la Convention européenne et pour garantir la conformité de son ordre juridique aux droits fondamentaux. Cela permettra aussi de réduire le flot de recours dont votre Cour est saisi.

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European Court Experts presents European Court of Human Rights News

Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Ministre, Mesdames et Messieurs les Juges, Excellences, Mesdames et Messieurs,
Depuis les années 1990, avec l’élargissement du Conseil de l’Europe à l’ensemble du continent, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a connu une évolution des plus spectaculaires. Grâce à l’introduction d’une cour permanente en 1998, elle a gagné en notoriété et en efficacité. Non seulement, elle constitue un organe de contrôle écouté, mais elle dispose aussi des moyens de pression efficaces pour faire appliquer ses jugements.
L’adhésion prochaine de l’Union européenne à la Convention des droits de l’homme, telle qu’elle est prévue par le traité de Lisbonne, annonce une nouvelle étape essentielle, même si quelques obstacles juridiques se dressent encore sur la route. La volonté politique est pourtant clairement affichée et l’importance de la Cour de Strasbourg en sera encore renforcée.
Certains commentateurs avisés ont comparé son rôle à celui de la Cour suprême des États-Unis : un corpus de droits fondamentaux intangibles interprétés par une juridiction qui vit dans son siècle et façonne par sa jurisprudence l’évolution des mentalités et la conception des droits de l’homme sur tout un continent. Lorsque l’on connaît le poids de l’institution américaine, la comparaison est des plus flatteuses.
J’ajouterai de mon côté que la pleine conscience de ce rôle invite surtout à l’humilité, parce que les droits de l’homme sont indissociables de la vie réelle et qu’ils ne peuvent donc être appréhendés uniquement de façon abstraite. Droits de l’homme et progrès vont de pair. Ils appellent de notre part à tous une démarche sans cesse renouvelée.
C’est à vous, Mesdames et Messieurs les juges, de faire en sorte que la dignité de l’homme soit respectée dans sa globalité afin que notre continent puisse vivre dans le respect des uns et des autres, conditio sine qua non d’une paix durable.